Paroxysmal Dyskinesia

Pediatr Neurol. 2005 Apr;32(4):229-35.

Channelopathy: hypothesis of a common pathophysiologic mechanism in different forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia.

Margari L, Presicci A, Ventura P, Margari F, Perniola T.

Child Neuropsychiatric Service, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.

Paroxysmal dyskinesias are a rare heterogeneous group of neurologic disorders, characterized by transient sudden choreoathetoid or dystonic attacks without loss of consciousness. This study reports a family with six affected members in three generations, and two sporadic cases of paroxysmal dyskinesia. Familial cases of paroxysmal dyskinesia are affected by idiopathic long-lasting paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia and the sporadic cases by idiopathic short-lasting paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia. Familial cases also suffer from epilepsy, mainly of generalized type, with benign outcome; one sporadic case is affected by migraine. Results presented in this neurophysiologic study include electromyography, somatosensory evoked potentials by median nerve stimulation, somatosensory evoked potentials by posterior tibial nerve stimulation, motor evoked potentials by magnetic transcranial cortical stimulation, visual evoked potentials, brainstem auditory evoked potentials, blink reflex, reflex H, and electroencephalography. The clinical and neurophysiologic findings presented here suggest a condition of hyperexcitability at the muscular and brain level, perhaps as a result of an ion channel disorder, which is in agreement with reports in the literature.