Ion Cyclotron Resonance

Electromagn Biol Med. 2009;28(2):124-34.

Electric polarization and the viability of living systems: ion cyclotron resonance-like interactions.

Liboff AR.

Center for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida 33431, USA.


Wellness can be described in physical terms as a state that is a function of the organism’s electric polarization vector P(r, t). One can alter P by invasive application of electric fields or by non invasive external pulsed magnetic fields (PMF) or ion cyclotron resonance (ICR)-like combinations of static and sinusoidal magnetic fields. Changes in human (total) body bioimpedance are significantly altered during exposure to ICR magnetic field combinations. The conductivities of polar amino acids in solution exhibit sharp discontinuities at ICR magnetic fields tuned to the specific charge to mass ratio of the amino acid. It has been reported that protein peptide bonds are broken by such amino acid ICR fields. Remarkably, some of these effects are only found at ultra-low AC magnetic intensities, on the order of .05 muT. This is approximately 10(3) below accepted levels determined by engineering estimates. Such strikingly low magnetic intensities imply the existence of physically equivalent endogenous weak electric field oscillations. These observations not only make claims related to electromagnetic pollution more credible but also provide a basis for future electromagnetic applications in medicine. They also reinforce the notion that physical factors acting to influence the electric polarization in living organisms play a key role in biology.

Electromagn Biol Med. 2009;28(1):71-9.

Cellular ELF signals as a possible tool in informative medicine.

Foletti A, Lisi A, Ledda M, de Carlo F, Grimaldi S.

BITitalia, Milan, Italy.


According to Quantum Electro-Dynamical Theory by G. Preparata, liquid water can be viewed as an equilibrium between of two components: coherent and incoherent ones. The coherent component is contained within spherical so called “coherence domains” (CDs) where all molecules synchronously oscillate with the same phase. CDs are surrounded by the incoherent component where molecules oscillate with casual phases regarding each other. The existence of coherent domain in water has been demonstrated in a set of experiments on pure water exposed to high voltage, under this condition the electric field concentrates inside the water, arranging the water molecules to form high ordered structure. Recently has been studied the influence of combined static and alternating parallel magnetic fields on the current through the aqueous solution of glutamic acid; outlining the relevance of low frequency electro-magnetic field in interacting with biological target. Additional results demonstrate that at combined static and alternating parallel, magnetic fields matching the ion cyclotron energy resonance of a particular charged molecule into biological tissue an intrinsic weak magnetic field is generated by ion currents in the cell. These results should increase the reliability and the clinical feasibility of the use of electromagnetic field, tuned at ion cyclotron resonance of charged molecules, as a biophysical approach to interfere with biological mechanisms. We demonstrate that Exposure of human epithelial cell to ion cyclotron energy resonance generated by a commercial electromedical device (Vega select 719) tuned to calcium ion at 7 Hz act as a differentiation factor, thus opening up the possibility to use particular extremely low frequency electro magnetic field protocols, in informative medicine.

Electromagn Biol Med. 2008;27(3):230-40.

Calcium ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) transfers information to living systems: effects on human epithelial cell differentiation.

Lisi A, Ledda M, De Carlo F, Foletti A, Giuliani L, D’Emilia E, Grimaldi S.

Istituto di Neurobiologia e Medicina Molecolare CNR, Rome, Italy.


The specific aim of the present work concerns the effectiveness of low-frequency electromagnetic fields treatment to modify biochemical properties of human keratinocytes (HaCaT). Cells exposed to a 7 Hz electromagnetic field, tuned to calcium ion cyclotron resonance (ICR), showed modifications in the cytoskeleton. These modifications were related to different actin distributions as revealed by phalloidin fluorescence analysis. Indirect immunofluorescence with fluorescent antibodies against involucrin and beta catenin, both differentiation and adhesion markers, revealed an increase in involucrin and beta-catenin expression, indicating that exposure to electromagnetic field carries keratinocytes to an upper differentiation level. This study confirms our previous observation and supports the hypothesis that a 7 Hz calcium ICR electromagnetic field may modify cell biochemistry and interfere in the differentiation and cellular adhesion of normal keratinocytes, suggesting the possibility to use ICR electromagnetic therapy for the treatment of undifferentiated diseases.

Electromagn Biol Med. 2007;26(4):315-25.

Local and holistic electromagnetic therapies.

Liboff AR.

Center for Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.


Based on decades of experimental evidence an excellent argument can be made for the existence of a fundamental functional relationship between living systems and electromagnetic fields. We have previously hypothesized that this relationship can be expressed in terms of a field vector whose source is the distribution of electric polarization within the system and which has both a phylogenetic and ontogenetic time dependence. Ion cyclotron resonance (ICR)-like magnetic signals have resulted in physiologic changes in many in vitro and in vivo model systems and have been applied medically with success to bone repair and spinal fusion. This type of local ICR-like therapy has recently been broadened into a holistic application following the remarkable discovery that the whole-body bioimpedance is sharply dependent on ICR signals. We relate this observation to the integrated electric polarization vector, in turn a measure of the double layer charge distribution at the cell membrane. This discovery, already being applied to a number of clinical problems, lends strong support to the concept of an overarching electromagnetic framework for living systems.

Electromagn Biol Med. 2006;25(4):227-43.

Some problems in modern bioelectromagnetics.

Zhadin M, Giuliani L.

Institute of Cell Biophysics of RAS, Pushchino, Moscow Region, Russia.


One of the main problems of bioelectromagnetics – the unbelievable narrow resonance peaks at the cyclotron frequency of the alternating magnetic field – was considered. Modern electrodynamics of condensed matter clearly brings out that the reason of this phenomenon is extremely low viscosity within coherence domains of aqueous electrolytic solutions. The electrochemical model of action of combined static and alternating magnetic fields on aqueous solutions of amino acids is proposed. The possibility of arising a succession of changes in ionic forms in these processes was revealed. The dipole ions (zwitterions) together with water molecules electrostatically forming joint groups in the solution, create favorable conditions for arising mixed coherence domains there. Simultaneously with evolution of the coherent processes in these domains, the amino acid zwitterions are transforming into the usual ionic form, fit for cyclotron resonance. The development of cyclotron resonance under action of combined magnetic fields increases the ion kinetic energy, and the ions leave the domains for the incoherent component of the solution according to Del Giudice pattern (Comisso et al., 2006; Del Giudice et al., 2002), creating the peak current through the solution. Then the ions are transforming little by little into zwitterionic form again; after that, the solution becomes ready to react on exposure of magnetic fields again. The possibilities for formation of coherence domains composed of water molecules together with peptide molecules or protein ones are discussed.

Anal Chem. 2005 Sep 15;77(18):5973-81.

Observation of increased ion cyclotron resonance signal duration through electric field perturbations.

Kaiser NK, Bruce JE.

Department of Chemistry, Washington State University, Pullman Washington 99164-4630, USA.


Ion motion in Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is complex and the subject of ongoing theoretical and experimental studies. Two predominant pathways for the loss of ICR signals are thought to include damping of cyclotron motion, in which ions lose kinetic energy and radially damp toward the center of the ICR cell, and dephasing of ion coherence, in which ions of like cyclotron frequency become distributed out of phase at similar cyclotron radii. Both mechanisms result in the loss of induced ion image current in FTICR-MS measurements and are normally inseparable during time-domain signal analysis. For conventional ICR measurements which take advantage of ion ensembles, maximization of the ion population size and density can produce the desired effect of increasing phase coherence of ions during cyclotron motion. However, this approach also presents the risk of coalescence of ion packets of similar frequencies. In general, ICR researchers in the past have lacked the tools necessary to distinguish or independently control dephasing and damping mechanisms for ICR signal loss. Nonetheless, the ability to impart greater phase coherence of ions in ICR measurements will allow significant advances in FTICR-MS research by improving the current understanding of ICR signal loss contributions of dephasing and damping of ion ensembles, increasing overall time-domain signal length, and possibly, resulting in more routine ultrahigh resolution measurements. The results presented here demonstrate the ability to employ a high density electron beam to perturb electric fields within the ICR cell during detection of cyclotron motion, in an approach we call electron-promoted ion coherence (EPIC). As such, EPIC reduces ICR signal degradation through loss of phase coherence, and much longer time-domain signals can be obtained. Our results demonstrate that time-domain signals can be extended by more than a factor of 4 with the implementation of EPIC, as compared to conventional experiments with otherwise identical conditions. The application of EPIC has also been observed to reduce the appearance of peak coalescence. These capabilities are not yet fully optimized nor fully understood in terms of the complex physics that underlies the enhancement. However, the enhanced time-domain signals can result in improved resolution in frequency-domain signals, and as such, this result is important for more efficient utilization of FTICR-MS. High resolution and accurate mass analysis are prime motivating factors in the application of advanced FTICR technology. We believe the approach presented here and derivatives from it may have significant benefit in future applications of advanced FTICR technology.

Int J Neurosci. 2004 Aug;114(8):1035-45.

Lithium ion “cyclotron resonance” magnetic fields decrease seizure onset times in lithium-pilocarpine seized rats.

McKay BE, Persinger MA.

Behavioral Neuroscience Laboratory, Laurentian University, Sudbury, Ontario, Canada.


The cyclotron resonance equation predicts that the frequency of an applied magnetic field that might optimally interact with a single ion species may be computed as a function of the charge-to-mass ratio of the ion and the strength of the background static magnetic field. The present study was undertaken to discern the applicability of this equation for optimizing lithium ion utilization in the rat, as inferred by the predicted magnetic “ion resonance “field-induced shift of lithium’s dose-dependent curve for seizure onset times (SOTs) when combined with the cholinergic agent pilocarpine. Groups of rats were administered 1.5 thru 3 mEq/kg lithium chloride (in 0.5 mEq/kg increments) and exposed to reference conditions or to one of three intensities (70 nanoTesla, 0.8 microTesla, or 25 microTesla) of a 85 Hz magnetic field calculated to resonate with lithium ions given the background static geomagnetic field of approximately 38,000 nanoTesla (0.38 Gauss). A statistically significant quadratic relationship for SOT as a function of magnetic field intensity (irrespective of lithium dose) was noted: this U-shaped function was characterized by equal SOTs for the reference and 25 microTesla groups, with a trend toward shorter SOTs for the 70 nanoTesla and 0.8 microTesla groups. Although not predicted by the equations, this report extends other findings suggestive of discrete intensity windows for which magnetic field frequencies derived from the cyclotron ion resonance equation may affect ion activity.

NeuroRehabilitation. 2002;17(1):9-22.

Physical mechanisms in neuroelectromagnetic therapies.

Liboff AR, Jenrow KA.

Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, MI 48309,


Physical parameters that are used to characterize different types of electromagnetic devices used in neurotherapy can include power, frequency, carrier frequency, current, magnetic field intensity, and whether an application is primarily electric or primarily magnetic. Currents can range from tens of microamperes to hundreds of milliamperes, magnetic fields from tens of microtesla to more than one tesla, and frequencies from a few Hz to more than 50 GHz. A division into three device categories is proposed, based on the current applied and the specificity of the therapeutic signal. Two research areas have great potential for new neuroelectromagnetic strategies. Studies of endogenous neural oscillatory states suggest using external fields to reinforce or inhibit such states. Also, various independent groups have reported that weak magnetic fields, in particular ion cyclotron resonance fields, are capable of sharply altering behavior in rats.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1997;18(1):85-7.

Electric-field ion cyclotron resonance.

Liboff AR.

Department of Physics, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan 48309, USA.


We consider the possibility that DC magnetic fields can interact in a resonant manner with endogenous AC electric fields in biological systems. Intrinsic electric-field ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) interactions would be more physically credible than models based on external AC magnetic fields and might be expected as an evolutionary response to the long-term constancy of the geomagnetic field.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(4):299-314.

Theoretical study of the resonant behaviour of an ion confined to a potential well in a combination of AC and DC magnetic fields.

Galt S, Sandblom J, Hamnerius Y.

Department of Applied Electron Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.


Numerical solutions are presented to the equation of motion for an ion confined to a region of space by a restoring force and subject to DC and AC magnetic fields. We have expanded on the theoretical work of Durney et al. [1988] by including a potential well as a confining factor. This additional term in the equation of motion, being nondissipative, could allow for the buildup of stored energy within the system to a level necessary for a macroscopic resonant phenomenon. Resonant behaviour has been studied, including calculation of the trajectory and energy (kinetic and potential) of a confined ion, with emphases on the appearance of both amplitude and frequency windows. The results are discussed in relation to ion transport through transmembrane channels exposed to magnetic fields. When realistic values of the frictional and restoring-force coefficients are considered, all predicted resonant behaviour disappears, except at very high field strengths.

Bioelectromagnetics. 1993;14(4):315-27.

Experimental search for combined AC and DC magnetic field effects on ion channels.

Galt S, Sandblom J, Hamnerius Y, Höjevik P, Saalman E, Nordén B.

Department of Applied Electron Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.


The hypothesis that specific combinations of DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields at so-called cyclotron-resonance conditions could affect the transport of ions through ion channels, or alter the kinetics of ion channels (opening and closing rates), has been tested. As a model system, the ion channels formed by gramicidin A incorporated in lipid bilayer membranes were studied. No significant changes in channel conductance, average lifetime, or formation rate as a function of applied fields could be detected over a wide range of frequencies and field strengths. Experiments were carried out to measure the time-resolved single-channel events and the average conductances of many-channel events in the presence of K+ and H+ ions. The channel blocking effect of Ca++ was also studied.