Seasonal Affective Disorder

Source Int J Neurosci, 58(3-4):261-7 1991 Jun

Magnetic fields and seasonality of affective illness: implications for therapy.

Sandyk R; Anninos PA; Tsagas N

Department of Psychiatry, Albert Einstein College of Medicine/Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10461.

Seasonal affective disorder is characterized by recurrent winter depression associated with hypersomnia, overeating, and carbohydrate craving. The severe form of winter depression affects about 5% of the general population and is believed to be caused by light deficiency. About 70%-80% of patients with winter depression experience attenuation of symptoms when exposed to bright light therapy. Hypotheses pertaining to the pathogenesis of winter depression implicate the effects of light on different characteristics of circadian rhythms. One of the environmental factors which may be implicated, in addition to light, in the pathophysiology of winter depression is the geomagnetic field. There is strong indication that the pineal gland is a magnetosensitive system and that changes in the ambient magnetic field alter melatonin secretion and synchronize the circadian rhythms. In man, shielding of the ambient magnetic field significantly desynchronizes circadian rhythms which could be gradually resynchronized after application of magnetic fields. The strength of the environmental magnetic field diminishes during the winter months, leading to increased susceptibility for desynchronization of circadian rhythms. Thus, since the acute application of magnetic fields in experimental animals resembles that of acute exposure to light with respect to melatonin secretion (i.e., suppression of melatonin secretion), magnetic treatment might be beneficial for patients with winter depression. In addition, since the environmental light and magnetic fields, which undergo diurnal and seasonal variations, influence the activity of the pineal gland, we propose that a synergistic effect of light and magnetic therapy in patients with winter depression would be more physiological and, therefore, superior to phototherapy alone.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)


Brain.  2012 Oct 5. [Epub ahead of print] Magnetic flimmers: ‘light in the electromagnetic darkness’ Martens JW, Koehler PJ, Vijselaar J. Source 1 Department of Humanities, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands. Abstract Transcranial magnetic stimulation has become an important field for both research in neuroscience and for therapy since Barker in 1985 showed that it was possible to stimulate the human motor cortex with an electromagnet. Today for instance, transcranial magnetic stimulation can be used to measure nerve conduction velocities and to create virtual lesions in the brain. The latter option creates the possibility to inactivate parts of the brain temporarily without permanent damage. In 2008, the American Food and Drugs Administration approved repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation as a therapy for major depression under strict conditions. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation has not yet been cleared for treatment of other diseases, including schizophrenia, anxiety disorders, obesity and Parkinson’s disease, but results seem promising. Transcranial magnetic stimulation, however, was not invented at the end of the 20th century. The discovery of electromagnetism, the enthusiasm for electricity and electrotherapy, and the interest in Beard’s concept of neurasthenia already resulted in the first electromagnetic treatments in the late 19th and early 20th century. In this article, we provide a history of electromagnetic stimulation circa 1900. From the data, we conclude that Mesmer’s late 18th century ideas of ‘animal magnetism’ and the 19th century absence of physiological proof had a negative influence on the acceptance of this therapy during the first decades of the 20th century. Electromagnetism disappeared from neurological textbooks in the early 20th century to recur at the end of that century. Schizophr Bull. 2005 Oct 27; [Epub ahead of print]

Therapeutic Effects of Individualized Alpha Frequency Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation ({alpha}TMS) on the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia.

Jin Y, Potkin SG, Kemp AS, Huerta ST, Alva G, Thai TM, Carreon D, Bunney WE Jr.

Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California, Irvine, School of Medicine.

Previous research in clinical electroencephalography (EEG) has demonstrated that reduction of alpha frequency (8-13 Hz) EEG activity may have particular relevance to the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) was utilized to investigate this relationship by assessing the therapeutic effects of stimulation set individually at each subject’s peak alpha frequency (alphaTMS). Twenty-seven subjects, with predominantly negative symptom schizophrenia, received 2 weeks of daily treatment with either alphaTMS, 3 Hz, 20 Hz, or sham stimulation bilaterally over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Individualized alphaTMS demonstrated a significantly larger (F 3,33 = 4.7, p = .007) therapeutic effect (29.6% reduction in negative symptoms) than the other 3 conditions (< 9%). Furthermore, these clinical improvements were found to be highly correlated (r = 0.86, p = .001) with increases (34%) in frontal alpha amplitude following alphaTMS. These results affirm that the resonant features of alpha frequency EEG play an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and merit further investigation as a particularly efficacious frequency for rTMS treatments.

Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2005 Jan;14(1):1-19, v.

Emerging brain-based interventions for children and adolescents: overview and clinical perspective.

Hirshberg LM, Chiu S, Frazier JA.

The NeuroDevelopment Center, 260 West Exchange Street, Suite 302, Providence, RI 02903, USA.

Electroencephalogram biofeedback (EBF), repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), and vagal nerve stimulation (VNS) are emerging interventions that attempt to directly impact brain function through neurostimulation and neurofeedback mechanisms. This article provides a brief overview of each of these techniques, summarizes the relevant research findings, and examines the implications of this research for practice standards based on the guidelines for recommending evidence based treatments as developed by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). EBF meets the “Clinical Guidelines” standard for ADHD, seizure disorders, anxiety, depression, and traumatic brain injury. VNS meets this same standard for treatment of refractory epilepsy and meets the lower “Options” standard for several other disorders. rTMS meets the standard for “Clinical Guidelines” for bipolar disorder, unipolar disorder, and schizophrenia. Several conditions are discussed regarding the use of evidence based thinking related to these emerging interventions and future directions.

J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26;23(34):10867-72.

Priming stimulation enhances the depressant effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

Iyer MB, Schleper N, Wassermann EM.

Brain Stimulation Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-1430, USA.

Low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can depress the excitability of the cortex locally and has been proposed for the treatment of disorders such as schizophrenia and epilepsy. Some have speculated that the depressant effect is related to long-term depression (LTD) of cortical synapses. Because in vitro LTD can be enhanced by pretreatment of synapses with higher-frequency stimulation, we hypothesized that if rTMS depression had mechanisms in common with LTD, higher-frequency priming would increase it also. In 25 healthy volunteers in two experiments, we measured motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from TMS of the motor cortex to define the baseline response. Subthreshold rTMS (6 Hz, fixed rate or frequency modulated) was used to prime the motor cortex, followed by suprathreshold 1 Hz stimulation for 10 min at just above the MEP threshold. Over the next 60 min, we recorded MEPs every 10 sec and found significant increases in the amount of cortical depression with both types of 6 Hz priming rTMS relative to sham. The MEP depression from 6 Hz-primed 1 Hz rTMS showed no evidence of decay after 60 min. Pretreatment with 6 Hz primes both 1 Hz rTMS depression and LTD. Although not conclusive evidence, this strengthens the case for overlapping mechanisms and suggests a potent new technique for enhancing low-frequency rTMS depression that may have experimental and clinical applications.

Rotator Cuff Tendonitis

Radiologe. 2004 Jun;44(6):597-603.

Conservative treatment and rehabilitation of shoulder problems

[Article in German]

Paternostro-Sluga T, Zöch C.

Klinik für Physikalische Medizin und Rehabilitation, Allgemeines Krankenhaus der Medizinischen Universität Wien.


The shoulder joint has an important influence on arm- and hand function. Therefore, activities of daily living, working and leisure time can be negatively influenced by diseases of the shoulder joint. Problems of the shoulder joint can be induced by muscular dysbalance and poor body posture. There is a strong relationship between shoulder function and body posture. Conservative treatment and rehabilitation of the shoulder joint aims at improving the local dysfunction of the shoulder joint as well as at improving function and social participation. Antiinflammatory and pain medication, exercise, occupational, electro-, ultrasound and shock wave therapy, massage, thermotherapy and pulsed electromagnetic fields are used as conservative treatments. Exercise therapy aims at improving muscular performance, joint mobility and body posture. Occupational therapy aims at improving functional movements for daily living and work. Electrotherapy is primarily used to relieve pain. Shock wave and ultrasound therapy proved to be an effective treatment for patients with calcific tendinitis. The subacromial impingement syndrome can be effectively treated by conservative therapy.

Lancet. 1984 Mar 31;1(8379):695-8.

Pulsed electromagnetic field therapy of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis.  A double-blind controlled assessment.

Binder A, Parr G, Hazleman B, Fitton-Jackson S.

The value of pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) for the treatment of persistent rotator cuff tendinitis was tested in a double-blind controlled study in 29 patients whose symptoms were refractory to steroid injection and other conventional conservative measures. The treated group (15 patients) had a significant benefit compared with the control group (14 patients) during the first 4 weeks of the study, when the control group received a placebo. In the second 4 weeks, when all patients were on active coils, no significant differences were noted between the groups. This lack of difference persisted over the third phase, when neither group received any treatment for 8 weeks. At the end of the study 19 (65%) of the 29 patients were symptomless and 5 others much improved. PEMF therapy may thus be useful in the treatment of severe and persistent rotator cuff and possibly other chronic tendon lesions.

Rheumatoid Arthritis

Rheumatol Int. 2010 Mar;30(5):571-86. Epub 2009 Oct 30.

Complementary and alternative medicine use in rheumatoid arthritis: proposed mechanism of action and efficacy of commonly used modalities.

Efthimiou P, Kukar M.

Rheumatology Division, Lincoln Medical and Mental Health Center, Weill Cornell Medical College, 234 E. 149th Street, New York, NY 10451, USA.


Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become popular in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) worldwide. The objective of this study is to systematically review the proposed mechanisms of action and currently available evidence supporting the efficacy of CAM modalities in relieving signs and symptoms of RA. The prevalence of CAM usage by RA patients is anywhere from 28% to 90%. Many published studies on CAM are based on animal models of RA and there is often insufficient evidence for the efficacy of CAM modalities in RA. The existing evidence suggests that some of the CAM modalities, such as acupuncture, herbal medicines, dietary omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, and pulsed electromagnetic field show promising efficacy in reducing pain. While the use of CAM modalities for the treatment of RA continues to increase, rigorous clinical trials examining their efficacy are necessary to validate or refute the clinical claims made for CAM therapies. Indian J Exp Biol.  2009 Dec;47(12):939-48.

Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field–a viable alternative therapy for arthritis.

Ganesan K, Gengadharan AC, Balachandran C, Manohar BM, Puvanakrishnan R.


Department of Biotechnology, Central Leather Research Institute, Adyar, Chennai 600 020, India.


Arthritis refers to more than 100 disorders of the musculoskeletal system. The existing pharmacological interventions for arthritis offer only symptomatic relief and they are not definitive and curative. Magnetic healing has been known from antiquity and it is evolved to the present times with the advent of electromagnetism. The original basis for the trial of this form of therapy is the interaction between the biological systems with the natural magnetic fields. Optimization of the physical window comprising the electromagnetic field generator and signal properties (frequency, intensity, duration, waveform) with the biological window, inclusive of the experimental model, age and stimulus has helped in achieving consistent beneficial results. Low frequency pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) can provide noninvasive, safe and easy to apply method to treat pain, inflammation and dysfunctions associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA) and PEMF has a long term record of safety. This review focusses on the therapeutic application of PEMF in the treatment of these forms of arthritis. The analysis of various studies (animal models of arthritis, cell culture systems and clinical trials) reporting the use of PEMF for arthritis cure has conclusively shown that PEMF not only alleviates the pain in the arthritis condition but it also affords chondroprotection, exerts antiinflammatory action and helps in bone remodeling and this could be developed as a viable alternative for arthritis therapy.

Life Sci. 2007 Jun 6;80(26):2403-10. Epub 2007 May 1.

Low frequency and low intensity pulsed electromagnetic field exerts its antiinflammatory effect through restoration of plasma membrane calcium ATPase activity.

Selvam R, Ganesan K, Narayana Raju KV, Gangadharan AC, Manohar BM, Puvanakrishnan R.

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Madras Veterinary College, Vepery, Chennai, India.


Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder affecting 1% of the population worldwide. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has a number of well-documented physiological effects on cells and tissues including antiinflammatory effect. This study aims to explore the antiinflammatory effect of PEMF and its possible mechanism of action in amelioration of adjuvant induced arthritis (AIA). Arthritis was induced by a single intradermal injection of heat killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis at a concentration of 500 microg in 0.1 ml of paraffin oil into the right hind paw of rats. The arthritic animals showed a biphasic response regarding changes in the paw edema volume. During the chronic phase of the disease, arthritic animals showed an elevated level of lipid peroxides and depletion of antioxidant enzymes with significant radiological and histological changes. Besides, plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) activity was inhibited while intracellular Ca(2+) level as well as prostaglandin E(2) levels was noticed to be elevated in blood lymphocytes of arthritic rats. Exposure of arthritic rats to PEMF at 5 Hzx4 microT x 90 min, produced significant antiexudative effect resulting in the restoration of the altered parameters. The antiinflammatory effect could be partially mediated through the stabilizing action of PEMF on membranes as reflected by the restoration of PMCA and intracellular Ca(2+) levels in blood lymphocytes subsequently inhibiting PGE(2) biosynthesis. The results of this study indicated that PEMF could be developed as a potential therapy for RA in human beings.

Pain Res Manag. 2006 Summer;11(2):85-90.

Exposure to a specific pulsed low-frequency magnetic field: a double-blind placebo-controlled study of effects on pain ratings in rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients.

Shupak NM, McKay JC, Nielson WR, Rollman GB, Prato FS, Thomas AW.

Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph’s Health Care, London, Ontario N6A 4V2.


BACKGROUND: Specific pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) have been shown to induce analgesia (antinociception) in snails, rodents and healthy human volunteers.

OBJECTIVE: The effect of specific PEMF exposure on pain and anxiety ratings was investigated in two patient populations.

DESIGN: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled parallel design was used.

METHOD: The present study investigated the effects of an acute 30 min magnetic field exposure (less than or equal to 400 microTpk; less than 3 kHz) on pain (McGill Pain Questionnaire [MPQ], visual analogue scale [VAS]) and anxiety (VAS) ratings in female rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n=13; mean age 52 years) and fibromyalgia (FM) patients (n=18; mean age 51 years) who received either the PEMF or sham exposure treatment.

RESULTS: A repeated measures analysis revealed a significant pre-post-testing by condition interaction for the MPQ Pain Rating Index total for the RA patients, F(1,11)=5.09, P<0.05, estimate of effect size = 0.32, power = 0.54. A significant pre-post-effect for the same variable was present for the FM patients, F(1,15)=16.2, P<0.01, estimate of effect size = 0.52, power =0.96. Similar findings were found for MPQ subcomponents and the VAS (pain). There was no significant reduction in VAS anxiety ratings pre- to post-exposure for either the RA or FM patients.

CONCLUSION: These findings provide some initial support for the use of PEMF exposure in reducing pain in chronic pain populations and warrants continued investigation into the use of PEMF exposure for short-term pain relief.

Acupunct Electrother Res. 2003;28(1-2):11-8.

Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with electromagnetic millimeter waves applied to acupuncture points–a randomized double blind clinical study.

Usichenko TI, Ivashkivsky OI, Gizhko VV.

Anesthesiology & Intensive Care Medicine Department, University of Greifswald, Germany.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electromagnetic millimeter waves (MW) applied to acupuncture points in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Twelve patients with RA were exposed to MW with power 2.5 mW and band frequency 54-64 GHz. MW were applied to the acupuncture points of the affected joints in a double blind manner. At least 2 and maximum 4 points were consecutively exposed to MW during one session. Total exposure time consisted of 40 minutes. According to the study design, group I received only real millimeter wave therapy (MWT) sessions, group II only sham sessions. Group III was exposed to MW in a random cross-over manner. Pain intensity, joint stiffness and laboratory parameters were recorded before, during and immediately after the treatment. The study was discontinued because of beneficial therapeutic effects of MWT. Patients from group I (n=4) reported significant pain relief and reduced joint stiffness during and after the course of therapy. Patients from group II (n=4) revealed no improvement during the study. Patients from group III reported the changes of pain and joint stiffness only after real MW sessions. After further large-scale clinical investigations MWT may become a non-invasive adjunct in therapy of patients with RA.

Neurosci Lett. 2001 Aug 17;309(1):17-20.

A comparison of rheumatoid arthritis and fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls exposed to a pulsed (200 microT) magnetic field: effects on normal standing balance.

Thomas AW, White KP, Drost DJ, Cook CM, Prato FS.

The Lawson Health Research Institute, Department of Nuclear Medicine & MR, St. Joseph’s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London, N6A 4V2, Ontario, Canada.

Specific weak time varying pulsed magnetic fields (MF) have been shown to alter animal and human behaviors, including pain perception and postural sway. Here we demonstrate an objective assessment of exposure to pulsed MF’s on Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and Fibromyalgia (FM) patients and healthy controls using standing balance. 15 RA and 15 FM patients were recruited from a university hospital outpatient Rheumatology Clinic and 15 healthy controls from university students and personnel. Each subject stood on the center of a 3-D forceplate to record postural sway within three square orthogonal coil pairs (2 m, 1.75 m, 1.5 m) which generated a spatially uniform MF centered at head level. Four 2-min exposure conditions (eyes open/eyes closed, sham/MF) were applied in a random order. With eyes open and during sham exposure, FM patients and controls appeared to have similar standing balance, with RA patients worse. With eyes closed, postural sway worsened for all three groups, but more for RA and FM patients than controls. The Romberg Quotient (eyes closed/eyes open) was highest among FM patients. Mixed design analysis of variance on the center of pressure (COP) movements showed a significant interaction of eyes open/closed and sham/MF conditions [F=8.78(1,42), P<0.006]. Romberg Quotients of COP movements improved significantly with MF exposure [F=9.5(1,42), P<0.005] and COP path length showed an interaction approaching significance with clinical diagnosis [F=3.2(1,28), P<0.09]. Therefore RA and FM patients, and healthy controls, have significantly different postural sway in response to a specific pulsed MF.

Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 Oct;82(10):1453-60.

Two configurations of static magnetic fields for treating rheumatoid arthritis of the knee: a double-blind clinical trial.

Segal NA, Toda Y, Huston J, Saeki Y, Shimizu M, Fuchs H, Shimaoka Y, Holcomb R, McLean MJ.

Vanderbilt University Medical School, Nashville, TN 37232, USA.


OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a nonpharmacologic, noninvasive static magnetic device as adjunctive therapy for knee pain in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, controlled, multisite clinical trial.

SETTING: An American and a Japanese academic medical center as well as 4 community rheumatology and orthopedics practices.

PATIENTS: Cohort of 64 patients over age 18 years with rheumatoid arthritis and persistent knee pain, rated greater than 40/100mm, despite appropriate use of medications.

INTERVENTION: Four blinded MagnaBloc (with 4 steep field gradients) or control devices (with 1 steep field gradient) were taped to a knee of each subject for 1 week.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The American College of Rheumatology recommended core set of disease activity measures for RA clinical trials and subjects’ assessment of treatment outcome.

RESULTS: Subjects randomly assigned to the MagnaBloc (n = 38) and control treatment groups (n = 26) reported baseline pain levels of 63/100mm and 61/100mm, respectively. A greater reduction in reported pain in the MagnaBloc group was sustained through the 1-week follow-up (40.4% vs 25.9%) and corroborated by twice daily pain diary results (p < .0001 for each vs baseline). However, comparison between the 2 groups demonstrated a statistically insignificant difference (p < .23). Subjects in the MagnaBloc group reported an average decrease in their global assessment of disease activity of 33% over 1 week, as compared with a 2% decline in the control group (p < .01). After 1 week, 68% of the MagnaBloc treatment group reported feeling better or much better, compared with 27% of the control group, and 29% and 65%, respectively, reported feeling the same as before treatment (p < .01).

CONCLUSIONS: Both devices demonstrated statistically significant pain reduction in comparison to baseline, with concordance across multiple indices. However, a significant difference was not observed between the 2 treatment groups (p < .23). In future studies, the MagnaBloc treatment should be compared with a nonmagnetic placebo treatment to characterize further its therapeutic potential for treating RA. This study did elucidate methods for conducting clinical trials with magnetic devices.

J Indian Med Assoc. 1998 Sep;96(9):272-5.

A study of the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field therapy with respect to serological grouping in rheumatoid arthritis.

Ganguly KS, Sarkar AK, Datta AK, Rakshit A.

National Institute for the Orthopaedically Handicapped (NIOH), Calcutta.

The positive role of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is known. The differential role of serological status of patients in RA is also well known. This paper presents a study of the differential effects of PEMF therapy on the two serological groups of patients. The responses of the seropositive patients are found to be more subdued. Varying effects of the therapy in alleviating the different symptomatologies indicate that the rheumatoid factor (RF) is more resistant to PEMF.

Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1994 Apr;32(4):319-26.

Influence of electromagnetic fields on the enzyme activity of rheumatoid synovial fluid cells in vitro.

Mohamed-Ali H, Kolkenbrock H, Ulbrich N, Sorensen H, Kramer KD, Merker HJ.

Institut fur Anatomie, Freie Universitat Berlin, Germany.

Since positive clinical effects have been observed in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with electromagnetic fields of weak strength and low frequency range (magnetic field strength: 70 microT; frequency: 1.36-14.44 Hz), an attempt was made to analyse the effects of these electromagnetic fields on enzyme activity in monolayer cultures of rheumatoid synovial fluid cells after single irradiation of the cultures for 24 hours. We only investigated the matrix metalloproteinases (collagenase, gelatinase, proteinase 24.11 and aminopeptidases). It was found that electromagnetic fields of such a weak strength and low frequency range do not generally have a uniform effect on the activity of the different proteinases in vitro. While aminopeptidases do not show any great changes in activity, the peptidases hydrolysing N(2,4)-dinitrophenyl-peptide exhibit a distinct increase in activity in the late phase in culture medium without fetal calf serum. In the presence of fetal calf serum this effect is not observed and enzyme activity is diminished. Our experiments do not show whether such a phase-bound increase in the activity of proteinases in vitro is only one finding in a much broader range of effects of electromagnetic fields, or whether it is a specific effect of weak pulsed magnetic fields of 285 +/- 33 nT on enzyme activity after single irradiation. This question requires further elucidation.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1992 Jul-Aug;(4):9-13.

The combined action of an ultrahigh-frequency electrical field bitemporally and decimeter waves on the thymus area in the combined therapy of rheumatoid arthritis patients.

[Article in Russian]

Sidorov VD, Grigor’eva VD, Pershin SB, Bobkova AS, Korovkina EG.


The thymus of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients was exposed to combined action of bitemporal UHF electric field and decimeter waves to study immunomodulating effect of the combination. Biochemical, immunological and endocrinological findings during the patients follow-up gave evidence for conclusion on activation of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-thymic axis. A response was achieved in RA seronegative variant with concomitant synovitis. This may be due to genetic factors.

Respiratory Sarcoidosis

Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk. 2007;(4):8-10.

Impact of various millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation schedules on immunological parameters in patients with respiratory sarcoidosis.

[Article in Russian]

Borisov SB, Shpykov AS, Terent’eva NA.


The paper analyzes the impact of various millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation schedules on immunological parameters in 152 patients with new-onset respiratory sarcoidosis. It shows that the immunomodulatory effect of millimeter-range therapy depends on the treatment regimen chosen. There is evidence for the advantages of millimeter-range noise electromagnetic radiation.


Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2010 May-Jun;(3):32-5.

Correction of immune and mediator characteristics by low-frequency magnetotherapy in children who frequently fall ill.

[Article in Russian]

[No authors listed]


The objective of this work was to compare characteristics of clinical condition and immune status of children with repeated respiratory diseases of different clinical and nosological forms after standard treatment and magnetotherapy. It was shown that magnetotherapy produces well-apparent immunocorrective effects in children with the affected upper and lower respiratory tracts including patients with bronchial obstruction syndrome. Positive changes of both cellular and humoral immunity characteristics were documented coupled to the improvement of serum cortisol levels. Results of the study give reason to recommend inclusion of magneotherapy in the combined treatment of children with repeated respiratory diseases.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2007 Sep-Oct;(5):24-6.

Infitatherapy of children with bronchial asthma

[Article in Russian]

Konova OM, Markarov GS, Zaslavski? AIu.


Use of nonmedicamental methods of treatment assists to improve the control of children’s bronchial asthma clinical course. Pulsed low-frequency electromagnetic field regulates the state of central and vegetative nervous system and improves psychological status of child. Inphytotherapy has bronchial spasmolytic and immune correction effects.

Electromagn Biol Med. 2007;26(4):311-3.

Utilization of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields in chronic disease; five years experience: three case reports.

Mancuso M, Ghezzi V, Di Fede G.

Institute of Biological Medicine, Milano, Italy.


We present three examples of the use of ELF magnetic therapy, two cases of multiple sclerosis and one of chronic pulmonary disease. In each of the two MS cases the Seqex device was applied as an adjunct to antioxidant medication two times a week for six weeks. Radiological and MRI examination indicated improvement in the two MS patients and stabilization in the patient with obstructive pulmonary disease following merely five treatments.

Probl Tuberk Bolezn Legk. 2007;(4):8-10.

Impact of various millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation schedules on immunological parameters in patients with respiratory sarcoidosis.

[Article in Russian]

Borisov SB, Shpykov AS, Terent’eva NA.


The paper analyzes the impact of various millimeter-range electromagnetic radiation schedules on immunological parameters in 152 patients with new-onset respiratory sarcoidosis. It shows that the immunomodulatory effect of millimeter-range therapy depends on the treatment regimen chosen. There is evidence for the advantages of millimeter-range noise electromagnetic radiation.

Acta Physiol Hung. 2003;90(4):327-34.

The effect of the pulsatile electromagnetic field in children suffering from bronchial asthma.

Sadlonova J, Korpas J, Salat D, Miko L, Kudlicka J.

Ist Internal Clinic, Teaching Hospital Martin, Martin, Slovakia.

From the bibliography it is well known that pulsatile electromagnetic field has an anti-inflammatory and analgesic effect. It causes vasodilatation, myorelaxation, hyper-production of connective tissue and activation of the cell membrane. Therefore our aim was to study the possible therapeutic effect of pulsatile electromagnetic field in asthmatic children. Forty-two children participating in this study were divided in two groups. The 1st group consisting of 21 children (11 females, 10 males, aged 11.8 +/- 0.4 yr) was treated by pulsatile electromagnetic field and pharmacologically. The 2nd group served as control, consisting also of 21 children (11 females, 10 males, aged 11.7 +/- 0.3 yr) and was treated only pharmacologically. Therapeutic effect of the pulsatile electromagnetic field was assessed on the basis of pulmonary tests performed by means of a Spirometer 100 Handi (Germany). The indexes FVC, IVC, ERV, IRV, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, MEF75,50,25, PEF, PIF and the changes of the flow-volume loop were also registered. The pulsatile electromagnetic field was applied by means of the device MTU 500H, Therapy System (Brno, Czech Republic) for 5 days, two times daily for 30 minutes (magnetic induction: 3 mT, frequency: 4 Hz as recommended by the manufacturer). The results in children of the 1st group showed an improvement of FVC of about 70 ml, IVC of about 110 ml, FEV1 of about 80 ml, MEF75 of about 30 ml, PEF of about 480 ml, PIF of about 550 ml. The increases of ERV, IRV and FEV1/FVC and decreases of MEF25,50 were statistically insignificant. The results in the 2nd group were less clear. The flow-volume loop showed a mild improvement in 14 children. This improvement in the 2nd group was less significant. The clinical status of children and their mood became better. We believe that the pulsatile electro-magnetotherapy in children suffering from asthma is effective. On the basis of our results we can recommend it as a complementary therapy.

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2002;103(7-8):260-5.

The effect of the pulsatile electromagnetic field in patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and bronchial asthma.

Sadlonova J, Korpas J, Vrabec M, Salat D, Buchancova J, Kudlicka J.

Department of Internal Medicine, Jessenius Faculty of Medicine, Comenius University, Martin, Slovakia.


Pulsatile electromagnetotherapy (PETh) stimulates biological tissues and processes; it modulates ion exchange across cell membranes and thus regulates the tone of smooth muscles. On the basis of these effects we hypothetized that PETh might treat COPD and bronchial asthma. We examined 117 (61 females, 56 males) adult patients who were decided in 4 groups. The 1st consisted of 16 patients with COPD who were treated by PETh and pharmacologically. The 2nd group (control) consisted of 24 patients with COPD who were treated only with medicaments. The 3rd group consisted of 37 asthmatics, treated by PETh and medicaments. The 4th group (control) consisted of 40 asthmatics treated only with medicaments. The effectiveness of PETh was assessed by lung function tests, which were performed using a Spirometer 100 Handi (Germany). We measured FVCex, FEV1, percentage of FEV1/FVCex, MEF25, 50, 75, PEF and registered the flow-volume loops. PETh was applied by apparatus MTU 500H (Therapy System, Czech Republic). It was administered 10 doses; once daily for 20 min, with a frequency of 4.5 Hz and a magnetic induction 3 T. The initial 3 doses were about 25% lower then the later doses. PETh was very effective in patients with COPD. The measured indexes improved about 200-660 ml or ml x s(-1), except FVC. PETh was less effective in asthmatics. Most indices improved without statistical significance, about 50-620 ml or ml x s(-1). The indices of FEV1/FVC and MEF25 deteriorated. The changes in controls without PETh were very small. (Tab. 2, Fig. 1, Ref. 19.)

Bratisl Lek Listy. 2000;101(2):71-7.

The sensitivity of tussiphonography for assessing the effectiveness of treatment.

Korpas J, Salat D, Sadlonova J, Vrabec M, Kudlicka J.

Department of Pathophysiology, Jessenius Medical School Martin, Slovakia.

Our previous studies have demonstrated that tussiphonogram is suitable not only for the detection of pathological condition in the respiratory tract but also for treatment effectiveness assessment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibilities of tussiphonography in detection of already little pathological changes in the airways and lungs. Therefore the changes of voluntary cough sound indexes were compared with pulmonary function tests in selected group of asthmatics before and after a pulsatile electromagnetic therapy in which the effect of therapy on pulmonary function tests was minimal. After magnetotherapy in 18 patients with increased expiratory forced lung capacity by 7.3% and increased peak inspiratory flow by 31.7% in average the voluntary cough sound intensity decreased by 37.8%, the sound duration shortened by 11% and the sound pattern showed the tendency to normalization. The improvement of mentioned cough indexes was absent in 17 patients who were treated by magnetotherapy too, but at the same time suffered from respiratory viral infection and in 22 patients treated only with climatotherapy and antiasthmatics. Changes of flow-volume loops in patients were not in the close relation to other followed indices. The correlation analysis showed a functional connection in relative differences of cough sound indices and some pulmonary function tests. The results confirmed the suitability of tussiphonography to indicate even mild pathological changes in respiratory tract. (Fig. 4, Ref. 21.)

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1997 Nov-Dec;(6):14-5.

The use of a pulsed traveling magnetic field in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis.

[Article in Russian]

Achkasov VV.

A course treatment with pulse running magnetic field generated by ALIMP-1 unit of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis provides a subjective response, higher exercise tolerance due to improved function of the external respiration. The inductors-solenoids are fixed tangentially on the chest by means of the jacket.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1996 Mar-Apr;(2):13-5.

The rehabilitative treatment of children with bronchial asthma.

[Article in Russian]

Alymkulov DA, To?chieva FM, Saralinova GM, Le?kina LF.


Staged regimen of decimetric wave electromagnetic therapy and microclimate of high altitude salt mines were used in sanatorium treatment of children with bronchial asthma. Pretreatment with the above magnetic field induced positive changes in the reflex-segmental zone which reflected in better adaptation to the high altitude climate. The latter promoted beneficial rearrangement of respiratory function and cardiovascular system.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1995 May-Jun;(3):12-4.

An evaluation of the effect of magnetic-laser therapy on external respiratory function in complicated forms of acute pneumonia in children.

[Article in Russian]

Gaidashev EA, Lebedev KN, Khristoforov VN, Biriukov VV, Gatkin EIa.

The authors studied the effects of magnetic laser therapy (MLT) on external respiration, blood transport of gas and clinical course of acute destructive pneumonia in children aged 1-12 years. It was established that energy of infrared laser combined with magnetic field reduces the severity of acute respiratory insufficiency, treatment course, prevents destructive complications in children with infiltrative acute destructive pneumonia.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1995 Nov-Dec;(6):16-8.

The efficacy of using an electromagnetic field of extremely high frequency (54-78 GHz) in treating patients with chronic nonspecific lung disease.

[Article in Russian]

Danilenko SR, Shatrov AA, Gerasimovich OI.


After a trial of the therapeutic complex including extra high frequency electromagnetic field in 154 patients with chronic bronchitis and bronchial asthma high efficacy of EHF-therapy was stated in the above diseases.

Vestn Otorinolaringol. 1995 Nov-Dec;(6):11-5.

Effectiveness of local magnetic field of the acoustic frequency of patients with acute inflammatory diseases of the larynx.

[Article in Russian]

Tarasov DI, Nikolaev MP, Aliev MA.

The authors have tried alternative magnetic field of sound frequency in patients with acute inflammatory diseases of the larynx. The above modality proved highly efficient in view of its bacteriological, immunomodulating and detoxication actions at cellular level, which make the method promising in physiotherapy of acute inflammation.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1994 May-Jun;(3):6-10.

A validation for the combined transcerebral exposure to a UHF field and to decimeter waves in the area of the splenic projection in bronchial asthma.

[Article in Russian]

Maliavin AG, Rychkova MA, Nikoda NV.


Thirty patients with bronchial asthma of moderate severity in unstable remission were treated with transcerebral UHF electric field and decimeter waves on the spleen region. Clinical and laboratory postexposure findings provided evidence in favour of the regimens used. Tolerance of the procedures, comparative efficacy regarding the clinico-pathogenetic variant, probable mechanisms of therapeutic action are discussed.

Voen Med Zh, 3, 1989, . 35-36.

The Efficacy of the Use of Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields in Chronic Bronchitis

Iurlov VM, Eksareva TA, Dolodarenko VF.

Low frequency electromagnetic field therapy and treatment with pulsed electromagnetic fields were effective in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis in combined treatment with drug therapies in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Magnetic field therapy consisted of a total of 15, 15 to 20 minute daily exposures.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2005 Jan-Feb;(1):19-22.

Physiotherapy with rotating pulse magnetic field in combined therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

[Article in Russian]

Lobanov AIu, Gilinskaia NIu, Chereiskaia NK.

Rationale and technique are proposed and clinical trial has been made of efficacy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment with impacts of rotating impulse magnetic field (RIMF) from the device Polyus-VIEM (two fields, induction 48-72 mTe, reversive rotation, 4-6 s reversion duration, 20-30 Hz, 7-10 min exposure of each field, 7-10 procedures). The addition of RIMF in combined treatment of COPD improves treatment and shortens its duration.

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 1995 May-Jun;(3):12-4.

An evaluation of the effect of magnetic-laser therapy on external respiratory function in complicated forms of acute pneumonia in children.

[Article in Russian]

Gaidashev EA, Lebedev KN, Khristoforov VN, Biriukov VV, Gatkin EIa.

The authors studied the effects of magnetic laser therapy (MLT) on external respiration, blood transport of gas and clinical course of acute destructive pneumonia in children aged 1-12 years. It was established that energy of infrared laser combined with magnetic field reduces the severity of acute respiratory insufficiency, treatment course, prevents destructive complications in children with infiltrative acute destructive pneumonia.

Vestn Otorinolaringol. 1994 Mar-Apr;(2):27-31.

The clinico-immunological assessment of the efficacy of magnetic-laser therapy in patients with chronic maxillary sinusitis.

[Article in Russian]of

Nikolaev MP, Prozorovskaia KN, Skriabin AS, Popov VV.

Magneto-laser therapy (80 Hz, 0.01 mW/cm2, 12 min) consisting of 10 sessions was performed in patients with maxillary sinusitis (MS). Therapeutic action on the sinus mucosa was conducted through the sinus anterior wall. The magneto-optic attachment coupled with semiconductor laser in the Uzor apparatus was tightly pressed to the facial skin in the sinus projection area. Positive clinical responses associated with stimulation of neutrophil phagocytic activity and with a rise in the portion of rosette-forming neutrophils and Ig A were achieved in 90% of the patients with catarrhal MS and in 83% of those with purulent MS. A 1.5-2-year follow-up registered the effect persistence in 80% and 69% of them, respectively. Compared to standard methods (microwave therapy), magneto-laser treatment was superior both in short-term and long-term effects obtained in purulent MS. The method can be applied in mono- and polytherapy.

Vestn Otorinolaringol. 1991 May-Jun;(3):60-3.

Clinical effectiveness of magnetolaser therapy of vasomotor rhinitis.

[Article in Russian]

Mamedov AF.

Magnet-laser therapy was used to treat vasomotor rhinitis in 90 patients. A constant magnet of 50 mT was applied to the exterior of the nose, and an infrared laser beam was applied via a light-guide to the reflexogenic zones of concha inferior. The radiation power density was 5 mW/cm2. The magnetic exposure time was 6-10 min and the laser exposure time was 3-5 min for each half of the nose. The therapeutic course was 8-12 sessions. The therapeutic results depended on the type of vasomotor rhinitis, clinical disorders, and duration of the disease. Good results were seen in 84 (93.3%) patients out of 90 cases. Stable remission was recorded in 61.1% patients, significant improvement of clinical manifestations of vasomotor rhinitis was observed in 32.2% cases. Best results were reported in patients with autonomic forms of vasomotor rhinitis who suffered from short-term disease and vasodilation disorders.

Wiad Lek. 2003;56(9-10):434-41.

Application of variable magnetic fields in medicine–15 years experience.

[Article in Polish]

Sieron A, Cieslar G.

Katedra i Klinika Chorob Wewnetrznych, Angiologii i Medycyny Fizykalnej SAM, ul. Batorego 15, 41-902 Bytom.

The results of 15-year own experimental and clinical research on application of variable magnetic fields in medicine were presented. In experimental studies analgesic effect (related to endogenous opioid system and nitrogen oxide activity) and regenerative effect of variable magnetic fields with therapeutical parameters was observed. The influence of this fields on enzymatic and hormonal activity, free oxygen radicals, carbohydrates, protein and lipid metabolism, dielectric and rheological properties of blood as well as behavioural reactions and activity of central dopamine receptor in experimental animals was proved. In clinical studies high therapeutic efficacy of magnetotherapy and magnetostimulation in the treatment of osteoarthrosis, abnormal ossification, osteoporosis, nasosinusitis, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson’s disease, spastic paresis, diabetic polyneuropathy and retinopathy, vegetative neurosis, peptic ulcers, colon irritable and trophic ulcers was confirmed.

Lik Sprava. 2004 Oct-Nov;(7):41-6.Links

Effect of magnetic and ultrasound therapy on clinical manifestations and general parameters of efficiency in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Ukrainian]

Savchenko VI, Samosiuk IZ.

The authors have analized general efficiency coefficients of the treatment of 117 patients with the first diagnized pulmonary tuberculosis. The patients were divided into a control and main group. 61 patients of the main group at the initial stage of complex treatment in addition to a standard chemotherapy have recieved magnetic and ultrasound therapy. During the treatment the patients underwent complex clinical and X-ray examination. The patients of the main group have been detected to have better signs of recovering compared with the control group. The signs were the following: more rapid disappearing of main clinical symptoms, radiological marks of tuberculosis such as focal and infiltrative alterations and decay cavity closing, cessation of bacterioexcretion.

Probl Tuberk. 2001;(2):11-2.

Very high frequency electromagnetic irradiation in multimodal treatment of patients with disseminated infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Iakovleva LP, Lineva ZE, Mozhokina GN.

Multimodality treatment involving very high-frequency electromagnetic radiation (VHFER) in combination with the antioxidants alpha-tocopherol and sodium thiosulfate, which had been performed in 27 patients with disseminated infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis, was effective. As compared to patients receiving chemotherapy in combination with electromagnetic radiation (n = 29) and routine chemotherapy alone (n = 29), these patients had more benefits from the multimodality treatment in terms of bacterial isolation cessation and reduced hospital stay by 1.5-2 months, minimal pneumofibrotic changes occurred in 63% of the patients. Combined VHFER and antioxidative therapy were found to exert a normalizing effect on lipid peroxidation and immunity.

Probl Tuberk. 2000;(2):18-21.

Magnetic laser therapy in combination with lymphotropic drugs administration in treating teenagers with common forms of tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Ovsiankina ES, Dobkin VG, Kobulashvili MG, Rusakova LI, Gubkina MF.

The paper shows the efficiency of combined use of magnetic laser therapy (MLT) and lymphotropic drug therapy in 40 teenagers with common forms of tuberculosis. The use of laser makes it possible to modify methods of regional lymphotropic therapy, to prolong its use and increase indications for it. MLT in combination with lymphotropic drug therapy accelerates positive changes and hence enhances the efficiency of tuberculosis treatment.

Probl Tuberk. 1999;(6):30-2.

Impact of combined magnetic and laser radiation of regional pulmonary blood flow in patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Iakubenia ON, Tostik SI, Iakubenia GI.

Rheopulmonography was used to study regional pulmonary blood flow in 30 patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis before and after combined magnetic and laser radiation (an experimental group) and in 28 patients receiving the routine chemotherapy (a control group). The use of combined exposure of a constant magnetic field and laser radiation was found to promote pulmonary vascular tone, better microcirculatory blood flow, and increased pulse blood filling in the affected portion of the lung.

Probl Tuberk. 1997;(6):50-3.Links

Use of centimetric range microwave therapy in multimodality treatment of patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Savula MM, Kravchenko NS.

Centimeter microwave therapy (CMWT) was employed in the multimodality treatment of 50 patients with destructive pulmonary tuberculosis. Its results were compared with a matched control group comprising 43 patients. CMWT increased the rate of decay cavity closure, improved bronchial patency and prevented its deterioration. This was followed by improved lipid peroxidation, antioxidative activity, and an immunological responsiveness of the body.

Probl Tuberk. 1995;(6):17-20.

Significance of the functional state of blood phagocytes in the choice of optimal regime of EHF therapy of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Novikova LN, Kaminskaia GO, Efimova LN.

A trial entered 136 patients with active tuberculosis of the lungs. 86 patients received conventional chemotherapy and a course of microwave therapy. Control patients received chemotherapy alone. Phagocyte cell viability and NB-test served as assessment laboratory criteria. Millimetric waves in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis potentiate the treatment efficacy documented as more rapid infiltration resolution and cavern closure through the mechanism of normalization of phagocyte cell function. The choice of wave length is principal: 5.6 mm waves affect phagocyte function negatively, 6.4 mm waves produce more significant positive effect in young patients with new local lesions while 7.1 mm waves in older patients and in severe involvement. In vitro radiation of the patients’ blood using different wave lengths and subsequent performance of NB-test provides objective information for choice of optimal treatment regimen.

Probl Tuberk. 1994;(4):2-4.

Effectiveness of chemotherapy combined with ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation for the treatment of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

[Article in Russian]

Khomenko AG, Chukanov VI, Novikova LN.

A procedure was developed to determine the optimum wavelength used for each patient individually. Ultrahigh-frequency electromagnetic radiation was studied in 54 patients with various pulmonary tuberculosis forms for its impact on the course of the disease. Treatment was performed by using a YAVOR device at 6.4 and 7.1 mm. Is was found that following 10 sessions of UHF therapy used in combination with specific chemicals, caverns were closed in 50% of patients 2-3 months after therapy and in the controls 5-6 months later. Infiltrates in the lesion areas were resolved 2-3 weeks after UHF exposure, whereas in the controls 1-2 months following drug therapy alone.

Radioprotective Effect

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult. 2010 Jul-Aug;(4):3-6.

The use of drinking sulfate mineral water in combination with laser and magnetic-laser irradiation for primary prophylaxis of post-radiation disorders(experimental study).

[Article in Russian]

Korolev IuN, Mikha?lik LV, Geniatulina MS, Nikulina LA.


Experiments on laboratory rats have demonstrated that prophylactic use of drinkable sulfate mineral water in combination with laser and magnetolaser irradiation of adrenal glands produces a radioprotecive effect that was especially well apparent in the liver and less so in the testes. Simultaneously, the functional activity of the thymus decreased. Protection of the liver by the combination of the above factors was more pronounced than the effect of each of them applied separately.

Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1999 Mar-Jun;39(2-3):345-8.

Possible modification of radiation injury using radio frequency electromagnetic radiation.

[Article in Russian]

Aminova EM, Ismailov ESh.

Daghestan State Polytechnic University, Makhach-Kala.


The possibility of radioprotective action of electromagnetic fields and radiations in radiofrequency range have been considered. It has been shown that the EMF and EMR effects depend on parameters of acting field. It is necessary to establish biophysical and biochemical ways and mechanisms of EMF and EMR action for effective use of radioemissions as radioprotectors.

Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1994 Jul-Oct;34(4-5):675-7.

Radioprotective effect of low-intensity radio-frequency centimeter-band waves in lethal gamma irradiation.

[Article in Russian]

Akoev IG, Kozhokaru AF, Mel’nikov VM, Usachev AV.


Primary investigations have been carried out to determine whether low-intensity EMR of a cm range exerts the radioprotective effect. Prior to gamma-irradiation with doses LD100/30 and LD60/30 mice were exposed for 23 h to 2-8 GHz microwaves with a swing frequency of 12-14 Hz, at energy flow density of 5 +/- 1.5 mu Wt/cm2. Survival and time of death of mice were registered during a month. With absolutely lethal doses of gamma-irradiation, the application of SHF EMR delayed the time of animal death by 2.8-4.2 days and led in one of the experiments to 20% survival of mice. With doses in non-absolutely lethal range, the pretreatment of mice with EMR increased the survival by 20% in two experiments.

Radiats Biol Radioecol. 1994 Jul-Oct;34(4-5):671-4.

Modification of lethal radiation injury in mice by postradiation exposure to low-intensity centimeter-band radio frequency waves.

[Article in Russian]

Akoev IG, Mel’nikov VM, Usachev AV, Kozhokaru AF.


A clearly pronounced modification of acute radiation injury of mice has been obtained by prolonged action (for up to 23 hours) of low-intensity (5 +/- 1.5 mu Wt/cm2) radiofrequency radiation in the ranges of 2-8, 8-18 and 19-27 GHz with a swing frequency of 12-14 Hz, applied immediately after exposure to lethal dose of gamma-radiation. Survival of mice and average life duration of killed mice were increased.


Minerva Med. 1984 Oct 20;75(40):2381-7.

Initial experiences in the treatment of psoriasis with pulsating magnetic fields.

[Article in Italian]

Castelpietra R, Dal Conte G.

The ability of a pulsed magnetic field to achieve regression in psoriasis was investigated in 110 patients. The best results were obtained in the scalp hair region (100% good results), patches in the classic sites (73,7% good results) in males, and in guttate forms (75% good results) in females. Persons in the 2nd, 5th and 6th decades of life showed the best response to this treatment, while longstanding forms responded better than those of more recent origin. The treatment seemed to be particularly successful when commenced in march-april (80% good results). No side-effects worthy of note were observed. It is felt that the field employed has a systemic effect.


Am J Orthop. 2004 Jan;33(1):27-30.

Pseudoarthrosis after lumbar spine fusion: nonoperative salvage with pulsed electromagnetic fields.

Simmons JW Jr, Mooney V, Thacker I.

UTMB, Galveston, Texas, USA.

We studied 100 patients in whom symptomatic pseudarthrosis had been established at more than 9 months after lumbar spine fusion. All patients were treated with a pulsed electromagnetic field device worn consistently 2 hours a day for at least 90 days. Solid fusion was achieved in 67% of patients. Effectiveness was not statistically significantly different for patients with risk factors such as smoking, use of allograft, absence of fixation, or multilevel fusions. Treatment was equally effective for posterolateral fusions (66%) as with interbody fusions (69%). For patients with symptomatic pseudarthrosis after lumbar spine fusion, pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation is an effective nonoperative salvage approach to achieving fusion.

J Nippon Med Sch. 2000 Jun;67(3):198-201.

A case of congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia treated with pulsing electromagnetic fields.  17-year follow-up.

Ito H, Shirai Y, Gembun Y.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.

Congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia presents surgeons with one of the most challenging of all orthopedic problems. Various surgical treatments have succeeded only rarely. We report long-term follow-up of a patient with congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) and bone grafting. In this severe case, Bassett type III and Boyd type II, encouraging results were achieved with Boyd’s dual onlay grafts and PEMF. Seven years after surgery, skeletal maturity was complete and an unacceptable degree of leg shortening had been avoided.

Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi (Taipei). 1995 Jan;55(1):89-93.

Treatment of an adult with neglected congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia with acute fracture: a case report.

Shih HN, Chuang DC, Hsu RW.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Treatment of congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia is very difficult. Numerous surgical procedures have been used including bone grafting, fixation, pulsed electromagnetic field, vascularized fibular bone grafting and lengthening devices. Previous studies, often reporting unsatisfactory results, are limited to children and adolescents. In adults, the following factors need to be considered: leg length discrepancy, leg deformity, soft tissue problems, lack of potential for growth and difficulties in healing. We reported a case of untreated congenital pseudoarthrosis of the tibia with fracture in a 32-year-old man. Conventional treatments used included excision of the pseudoarthrosis, correction of the deformity, intramedullary fixation, bone grafting and soft tissue transplantation for lengthening and coverage. These procedures led to good bony union and a satisfactory outcome.

Calcif Tissue Int. 1991 Sep;49(3):216-20.

Long-term pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) results in congenital pseudoarthrosis.

Bassett CA, Schink-Ascani M.

Bioelectric Research Center, Riverdale, New York 10463.

Ninety-one patients with congenital pseudarthrosis of the tibia have been treated with pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) since 1973 and all except 4 followed to puberty. Lesions were stratified by roentgenographic appearance. Type I and type II had gaps less than 5 mm in width. Type III were atrophic, spindled, and had gaps in excess of 5 mm. Overall success in type I and II lesions was 43 of 60 (72%). Of those 28 patients seen before operative repair had been attempted, 7 of 8 type I lesions healed (88%), whereas 16 of 20 type II lesions healed (80%) on PEMFs and immobilization alone. Only 19% (6 of 31) type III lesions united, only one of which did not require surgery. Sixteen of 91 limbs (18%) were ultimately amputed, most before treatment principles were fully defined in 1980. Fourteen of these 16 patients (88%) had type III lesions. Refracture occurred in 22 patients, most as the result of significant trauma, in the absence of external brace support. Twelve of the 19 refractures, retreated with PEMFs and casts, healed on this regime. Episodic use of PEMFs proved effective in controlling stress fractures in several patients until they reached puberty. PEMFs, which are associated with no known risk, appear to be an effective, conservative adjunct in the management of this therapeutically challenging, congenital lesions.

Orthop Clin North Am. 1984 Jan;15(1):143-62.

Treatment of congenital and infantile pseudoarthrosis of the tibia with pulsing electromagnetic fields.

Sharrard WJ.

The management of congenital and infantile pseudarthrosis of the tibia poses difficult problems because of the variability in the type and prognosis of the lesion and varied response to surgical treatment. Whatever the severity of the lesion, the use of pulsed electromagnetic fields can be expected to improve the prognosis for union by a factor of at least 20 per cent. In a very few patients, usually those with pseudarthrosis presenting later in life, pulsed electromagnetic fields alone together with plaster immobilization may be sufficient to produce union. In some, partially successful previous surgery may be made completely successful by subsequent application of pulsed electromagnetic fields. In patients with a fair or good prognosis as regards the type of lesion, a combination of surgery and pulsed electromagnetic treatment, some period of which may also be given before surgical treatment, gives a moderately high rate of success. In the three groups already described, the overall success rate is likely to be more than 70 per cent. In lesions with a poor prognosis, or after multiple surgical procedures in an older child, a combination of very adequate further surgery and pulsed electromagnetic fields can produce union in perhaps 30 per cent of cases, but it is unwise to commence any treatment if the limb is already unacceptably short, if there is gross wasting of the limb with evidence of inadequate vascular supply, and/or if the joints of the foot and ankle are stiff and associated with deformity. In such cases, the procedure of choice is amputation.

Protection & Treatment of Fluoride Associated Osteoarthosis

Vopr Kurortol Fizioter Lech Fiz Kult.  2010 Jul-Aug;(4):20-2.

The use of magnetic-laser therapy in the combined treatment of osteoarthrosis in workers exposed to inorganic fluoride compounds.

[Article in Russian]

Fedorov AA, Riabko EV, Gromov AS.


The present study included 67 patients who had been exposed to the impact of inorganic fluoride compounds. It demonstrated beneficial effect of magnetolaser therapy in combination with whole body iodine-bromide-sodium chlorine baths, physical exercises, and massage on clinical manifestations of the primary disease and concomitant pathologies. Simultaneously, metabolic processes in the articular cartilage and bone tissue were normalized, lipid peroxidation was improved and optimization of antioxidative protection achieved. These changes are indicative of high therapeutic efficiency of the combined treatment employed in this study and its favourable influence on the quality of life of the patients.